Diabetes, Type II

Diabetes, Type 2 occurs when the body cells resist stimulation from insulin. These cells, therefore, fail to use blood sugar for energy production or storage. The level of sugar in the blood therefore rises, which stimulates the production of more insulin. Further insulin resistance by the body may cause reduction in its production.

Insulin is a protein, which is produced by beta cells in the pancreas. The purpose of insulin is to stimulate body cells to take up sugar from the blood. When food is ingested and digested, it is released into the blood as glucose. The body cells are then required to take up this glucose and use it for energy production or convert it to glycogen for storage. When needed, the body cells will convert the glycogen back to glucose for energy production. When the body cells resist insulin, they are unable to take up glucose which then qualifies to become a disease.

Lifestyle factors that may cause Diabetes, Type 2 are: high consumption of fat and sugar, obesity, and lack of exercise over a long time. Glucose intake may be reduced, but its level in the blood increases due to failure of the cells to take it up. Cells will then lack the necessary glucose they need to work. Also, the blood’s molecular thickness will increase. This will pull water from the cells to the blood. Urination will thus increase while the cells remain dried out. Muscular reduction and weight loss will occur as tissues break down fat and protein in order to produce energy. There are both lifestyle and medical treatments for this type of diabetes. In lifestyle treatment, adherence is given to the type of food eaten and exercise programs. Diet should be low in fat and sugar content. An exercise program will aim to reduce blood sugar as well as achieve weight loss. Medical treatment is recommended when lifestyle measures fail to be adequately effective. Medical treatment involves the use of drugs that are taken by mouth.

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