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Bladder Cancer

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Cells in the bladder can develop bladder cancer, a common type of cancer. Your lower abdomen has a hollow muscular bladder that stores urine. In most cases, bladder cancer develops in the lining cells of the bladder (urothelial cells). The kidneys and the tubes that connect the kidneys and bladder also contain urothelial cells. While urothelial cancer can also occur in the kidneys and ureters, bladder cancer is a lot more common than urothelial cancer in the ureters.

Early detection of bladder cancer is the most effective treatment method since the disease can be treated easily. The recurrence of bladder cancer can be even greater if the treatment is successfully administered. Consequently, bladder cancer patients need follow-up tests years after treatment so that they can check for recurrences. Bladder cancer is more likely to occur when a person has a number of risk factors.

 

Factors that you can change to reduce risk

Smoking

Among the major risk factors for bladder cancer, smoking is the most common. A smoker's chances of developing bladder cancer are three times higher than non-smokers. Smoking is the biggest cause of bladder cancer, accounting for about half of all cases.

 

Exposures in the workplace

There has been a link between bladder cancer and certain industrial chemicals. There are chemicals in the dye industry that can cause bladder cancer, including aromatic amines such as benzidine and beta-naphthylamine.

Certain organic chemicals may also increase the risk of bladder cancer among workers in other industries. Printing companies, rubber, leather, textiles, and paint manufacturers, are at higher risk. Besides painters and machinists, printers, and hairdressers, those at risk for bladder cancer include hairdressers and truck drivers, which is likely caused by diesel fumes and heavy hair dye consumption.

Blaspheroid cancer can be caused by tobacco smoking combined with workplace exposure. A person who smokes and works with cancer-causing chemicals may also be at an increased risk of developing bladder cancer.

 

Herbal supplements or certain medicines

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with the diabetes medicine pioglitazone. When the dose is increased, the risk appears to increase. An increased risk of urothelial cancers, such as bladder cancer, has been linked to dietary supplements containing aristolochic acid.

 

Arsenic in drinking water

It has been reported in some parts of the world that drinking water containing arsenic is associated with a higher risk of bladder cancer. Several factors may influence your risk of being exposed to arsenic. You should use water that comes with a low arsenic content, either from a well or from a public system. There is no significant source of arsenic in drinking water for most Americans.

 

Not drinking enough fluids

Water drinkers have lower bladder cancer rates, especially those who drink plenty of fluids daily. In other words, they might empty their bladders more frequently, which might prevent chemicals from lingering in their bladders for longer periods of time.

 

What are the treatment options for bladder cancer?

Depending on your symptoms, bladder cancer type, stage, and overall health, your doctor will determine what treatment you will receive.

 

Treatment for stage 0 and stage 1

In the case of stage 0 and stage 1 bladder cancer, the removal of the tumor may be a surgical method, as can chemotherapy, or immunotherapy, like taking medication that engages the immune system in destroying the cancerous cells through the use of an immune-enhancing agent.

 

Treatment for stage 2 and stage 3

The following treatments are available for bladder cancer in stages 2 and 3:

  • Chemotherapy and bladder removal together
  • Surgery to install a new way for urine to exit the body after removing the whole bladder, resulting in a radical cystectomy

 

Treatment for stage 4 bladder cancer may include

  • Symptoms can be relieved, and life can be extended by chemotherapy without surgery
  • Surgery to create a new pathway for urine expulsion following a radical cystectomy and removal of lymph nodes
  • Using chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy in addition to surgery to improve symptoms or kill remaining cancer cells
  • Medications in clinical trials

 

Does bladder cancer have a good outlook?

In addition to the type of cancer and the stage, several other factors determine your outlook. A five-year survival rate for a cancer patient varies depending on the stage:

  • There is a 98 percent survival rate for people with stage 0 bladder cancer after five years.
  • Stage 1 bladder cancer patients have an 88 percent chance of surviving five years after undergoing treatment.
  • It is estimated that 63 percent of people with stage 2 bladder cancer will survive five years after diagnosis.
  • There is a 46 percent chance of survival for people with stage 3 bladder cancer five years after diagnosis.
  • About 15 percent of people with stage 4 bladder cancer survive five years after diagnosis.

Every stage of the disease has its own treatment. It is also important to understand that survival rates don't necessarily convey the whole story, nor can they predict your future. Please discuss any concerns or questions you may have with your doctor.

 

Causes

Changes in the DNA of bladder cells cause bladder cancer. Cells are instructed by their DNA to function properly. In contrast to healthy cells, the altered cell multiplies rapidly and continues to exist. Invasion and destruction of normal body tissue are possible due to abnormal cells forming a tumor. When the abnormal cells break away from the body's normal structure, they can spread (metastasize) throughout the body.

 

Types of bladder cancer

The bladder can develop cancerous cells of different types. Cancer starts in a certain type of bladder cell, which determines which type of bladder cancer it develops. Your information will allow your doctor to determine which treatment will be most effective.

 

Bladder cancer can take the following forms:

Urothelial carcinoma

Cells that line the inside of the bladder are referred to as urothelial carcinoma or transitional cell carcinoma. When your bladder is full, your urothelial cells expand, while when it is empty, they contract. It is also possible for cancer to form inside the ureters and urethra, as these same cells line the inside of the ureters and the urethra. There are several types of bladder cancer in the United States, but urothelial carcinoma is the most common.

 

Squamous cell carcinoma

Infections or long-term use of urinary catheters can cause chronic irritation of the bladder, resulting in squamous cell carcinoma. The United States has a low incidence of squamous cell bladder cancer. A certain parasitic infection (schistosomiasis) causes bladder infections to become more common in parts of the world.

 

Adenocarcinoma

The bladder contains mucus-secreting mucus-secreting cells, which can lead to adenocarcinoma. The incidence of bladder adenocarcinoma is very low.

 

Prevention

Taking steps to reduce your bladder cancer risk is possible, even though there is no guarantee that bladder cancer can be prevented. Here are some examples:

  • Smoking should be avoided. Do not start smoking if you do not already do so. Make a plan with your doctor to stop smoking. In addition, to support groups and medications, you may find other methods to help you stop smoking.
  • Chemicals should be handled with caution. Keep all safety instructions in mind if you work with chemicals.
  • Fruits and vegetables should be selected in a variety. Colorful fruits and vegetables should be included in your diet. Your risk of cancer may be reduced by eating fruits and vegetables.

 

Conclusion

The number of bladder cancer cases in the US increases by over 70,000 yearly. Bladder cancer is a disease that occurs in anyone, but factors such as age, race, and gender may increase the risk of developing the disease. It may be possible to take preventive measures by knowing behavior-related bladder cancer risk factors to reduce your risk. Consult with your doctor for more information. 

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