Bad Breath

Bad Breath

cured Bad breath


A quarter of the world's population suffers from bad breath. Halitosis can be caused by a variety of factors, but oral hygiene is the most common. Halitosis is also called fetor oris. However, halitosis can be relatively easy to remedy, despite its significant discomfort and embarrassment. It is common for people to suffer from bad breath, which can cause significant psychological distress. The condition may be caused by a number of different factors, as well as treated.

There are no age restrictions on who can suffer from bad breath. There is a good chance that 1 in 4 people have bad breath regularly. After tooth decay and gum disease, halitosis is the third most commonly reported reason for seeking dental care.



Bad breath can be caused by the following factors:


It is common for tobacco products to cause mouth odors of their own. Moreover, they can also lead to gum disease, which causes bad breath.


It is possible for food particles stuck in teeth to emit odors as they break down. Bad breath can also be caused by certain foods, such as onions and garlic. The breakdown products of these foods are carried by the blood into the lungs and can affect your breath once they have been digested.

Dry mouth

The mouth is naturally cleaned by saliva. Naturally dry mouths or that are afflicted with a specific disease, which is xerostomia, can accumulate odors.

Dental hygiene

Flossing and brushing eliminate small food particles that accumulate and slowly break down, resulting in odors. If you don't brush your teeth regularly, bacteria can build up on your teeth called plaque. A plaque buildup on the gums can irritate them and cause periodontitis, a condition in which the gums and teeth become inflamed. When dentures are not cleaned regularly or properly, bacteria can grow on them, which can cause halitosis in the mouth.

Crash diets

It is possible to suffer from halitosis during fasting and ketogenic diets. This is caused by the breakdown of fat and the production of ketones, which are chemicals. A strong aroma can be found in these ketones.


It is possible for certain medications to reduce saliva and, consequently, cause odors to appear. Chemicals released in the breath when other drugs break down can produce odors. Some tranquilizers, such as phenothiazines, and nitrates used to treat angina, are examples of these chemicals. Vitamin supplement users can also experience bad breath if they take large doses of these supplements.

Mouth, nose, and throat conditions

There are instances when small, bacteria-covered stones may form on the tonsils at the back of the throat, causing an odor. The mouth, throat, or sinuses can also be infected or inflamed, resulting in halitosis.

Foreign body

Individuals can suffer from bad breath if they have a foreign object lodged in their nasal cavity, especially when young.


Halitosis can be caused by specific compounds produced by cancer, liver failure, and other metabolic diseases. Regular reflux of stomach acids can cause bad breath as a result of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).


Home remedies

Home remedies and lifestyle changes for bad breath include:

  • It is imperative to brush your teeth at least twice a day, preferably each time you eat.
  • It is important to floss between the teeth to reduce the buildup of food particles and plaque. The surface of the teeth is only cleaned around 60% after brushing.
  • Dentures, bridges, and mouthguards should be cleaned as prescribed on a daily basis, including dentures, bridges, and mouth guards. It is important to keep the mouth clean so bacteria cannot build up and be transferred into the mouth. A toothbrush should be changed every two to three months.
  • You should brush your tongue if you suffer from a dry mouth or a smoker's tongue. It is sometimes helpful to use a tongue scraper.
  • Stay hydrated to prevent dry mouth. The mouth becomes dehydrated by alcohol and tobacco. It can be helpful to chew gum or suck a sweet, preferably sugar-free, in order to stimulate saliva production. Medications that stimulate saliva flow may be prescribed by a doctor for chronically dry mouth.
  • Foods that contain onions, garlic, and spices should be avoided. Bad breath is also linked to sugary foods. Don't drink too much coffee or alcohol. The back of the tongue can be cleaned by eating rough foods during breakfast.
  • To rule out other conditions, an individual should visit a doctor if breath odor persists after controlling these factors.



An evaluative scale of six points may be used by a dentist to rate the odor, which is believed to be caused by halitosis. It is possible to smell the odor on the back of the tongue after a dentist scrapes the tongue. It is possible to rate odors more precisely with a variety of sophisticated detectors.

The following are some of them:

  • Three volatile sulfur compounds are measured by gas chromatography: hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulfide.
  • Halitosis-causing bacteria produce a specific enzyme that is measured by the BANA test.
  • Symptoms of mouth odor are associated with beta-galactosidase levels.

The dentist will then be able to identify the likely cause of the bad breath.



In the event that your dentist determines that the odor is not from the mouth and it is not of oral origin, they may refer you to your family doctor or to a specialist for a diagnosis of the cause of the bad breath as well as treatment recommendations. To determine if any of your medications may be contributing to the issue, go over your medications with them. Ensure that they remain healthy by monitoring their diabetes, allergies, and other conditions. Depending on the cause of the odor, your dentist may be able to treat it or refer you to a periodontist, which is a dentist who specializes in treating problems related to the gums.

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This analysis helps identify the histological features of Erythrodermic Psoriasis, such as epidermal thickening and inflammatory cell infiltration.Blood TestsScreening for Infections: Given that infections, particularly upper respiratory infections, can trigger or exacerbate Erythrodermic Psoriasis, blood tests may be employed to identify the presence of infectious agents.Assessment of Systemic Issues: Blood tests can reveal systemic issues, such as abnormalities in liver function, which may be associated with certain medications or complications of Erythrodermic Psoriasis.Treatments for Erythrodermic PsoriasisEffectively managing Erythrodermic Psoriasis entails a multifaceted approach, encompassing:HospitalizationClose Monitoring: The dynamic nature of Erythrodermic Psoriasis requires vigilant observation to track changes in symptoms, fluid balance, and vital signs.Fluid Balance Correction: Severe cases may present with imbalances, necessitating intravenous fluids to rehydrate the body and maintain electrolyte balance.Supportive Care: The acute phase often involves managing pain, discomfort, and potential complications, requiring a multidisciplinary healthcare team.Topical and Systemic MedicationsTopical Corticosteroids: Applied directly to affected areas, these potent anti-inflammatory agents help alleviate local symptoms and reduce redness.Oral Retinoids: Systemic retinoids, such as acitretin, may be prescribed to control inflammation and promote skin cell turnover. Regular monitoring for potential side effects is crucial.Cyclosporine: An immunosuppressive medication that can rapidly suppress the immune response, offering relief from inflammation. Its use is often short-term due to potential side effects.Methotrexate: This immunosuppressant is another systemic option that can be effective, particularly in cases resistant to other treatments. Regular monitoring for potential liver and bone marrow toxicity is essential.Phototherapy (Light Therapy)Narrowband UVB Therapy: This targeted phototherapy option exposes the skin to a specific range of UVB light, slowing down the abnormal skin cell growth characteristic of psoriasis.PUVA (Psoralen plus UVA) Therapy: Taking a light-sensitizing medication (psoralen) before exposure to UVA light. This combination helps to control inflammation and slow down skin cell turnover.Immunosuppressive DrugsCyclosporine: Beyond its acute use, cyclosporine may be employed as a long-term immunosuppressant, with careful monitoring for potential side effects.Methotrexate: Besides its acute application, methotrexate can serve as a long-term immunosuppressive therapy for cases resistant to other treatments.Biologic TherapiesTNF Inhibitors: Target the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) to reduce inflammation and skin cell turnover.IL-17 Inhibitors: Block interleukin-17, a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in psoriasis.IL-23 Inhibitors: Target interleukin-23, another cytokine involved in the immune processes triggering psoriasis.Prevention of Erythrodermic PsoriasisAlthough complete prevention may not be guaranteed, proactive measures can mitigate risk:Adhering to prescribed treatment plans: Consistent use of medications and therapies to manage psoriasis effectively.Stress management: Incorporating stress-reduction techniques, such as mindfulness or meditation, to mitigate triggers.Avoiding known triggers: Being vigilant about and avoiding factors like certain medications or infections that may provoke a flare-up.Sun protection: Safeguarding the skin from excessive sun exposure through sunscreen and appropriate clothing.When to Visit a DoctorDiscerning the critical junctures for seeking professional medical help is pivotal:Visible skin changes: Sudden and severe alterations in skin appearance, especially widespread redness and peeling, warrant prompt attention.Worsening of symptoms: If psoriasis symptoms intensify despite ongoing treatment or management efforts.Systemic symptoms: Systemic symptoms such as fever, rapid heart rate, or dehydration mandate immediate medical consultation.ConclusionWith its multifaceted nature, Erythrodermic Psoriasis demands a nuanced approach for optimal management. By recognizing symptoms, understanding triggers, seeking timely diagnosis and treatment, and adopting preventive measures, individuals can navigate the challenges posed by this complex condition with resilience and control. Consultation with a healthcare professional at the first sign of suspicion is paramount for optimal outcomes and improved quality of life in the face of Erythrodermic Psoriasis.

chronic plaque psoriasis on knee

Chronic Plaque Psoriasis: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Chronic plaque psoriasis is an intricate interplay between genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. As a dominant form of psoriasis, understanding the complexities of chronic plaque psoriasis is crucial for individuals affected by this chronic autoimmune skin disorder. Lets meticulously explore the causes, clinical features, various types, potential complications, differential diagnoses, available treatment options, prevention strategies, prognosis, and guidelines on when to seek professional medical attention.What is Chronic Plaque Psoriasis?Chronic plaque psoriasis's roots lie in the immune system's misidentification of healthy skin cells as foreign invaders, setting off a chain reaction leading to the overproduction of skin cells. This results in raised, red plaques adorned with silvery-white scales, forming a distinctive clinical presentation. These plaques, commonly found on the extensor surfaces of the elbows and knees, the scalp, and the lower back, signify the chronic and relapsing nature of the condition.Causes of Chronic Plaque PsoriasisWhile the precise etiology remains elusive, the following could be the common causes of Chronic Plaque Psoriasis:1. Family HistoryStudies have shown that individuals with close relatives, such as parents or siblings, who have psoriasis are at a higher risk of developing the disorder themselves.2. Genetic MarkersVariations in specific genes, particularly those related to the immune system and skin cell function, can increase the likelihood of developing psoriasis.3. StressStress can activate the immune system and contribute to inflammation, possibly exacerbating the symptoms of chronic plaque psoriasis.4. InfectionsGuttate psoriasis, a subtype of chronic plaque psoriasis, often occurs after a streptococcal throat infection.5. Immune System DysregulationAutoimmune Component: In the case of psoriasis, immune cells called T cells become overactive, leading to an inflammatory response and an accelerated production of skin cells. 6. Climate and WeatherCold and dry weather may worsen symptoms for some individuals, while others may find relief in warmer, more humid climates.Clinical Features of Chronic Plaque PsoriasisBeyond the visible plaques and scales, chronic plaque psoriasis encompasses a spectrum of symptoms. 1. Visible Plaques and ScalesChronic plaque psoriasis is identified by distinct, raised red plaques covered with silvery-white scales. These plaques typically appear on the elbows, knees, scalp, and lower back extensor surfaces.2. Itching (Pruritus)The persistent itchiness can significantly impact the quality of life, leading to discomfort and potential sleep disturbances.3. Pain and DiscomfortIndividuals with chronic plaque psoriasis often experience pain and discomfort associated with the inflamed and thickened skin.4. Fissuring and BleedingDue to their thickness and constant exposure to movement and friction, the plaques are prone to fissuring (cracking) and bleeding.5. Impact on Daily ActivitiesPlaques in commonly flexed areas, such as elbows and knees, can hinder regular movements and activities. Individuals may experience difficulty bending joints, impacting their ability to perform routine tasks.7 Types of Chronic Plaque PsoriasisUnderstanding the diversity within chronic plaque psoriasis involves recognizing its various subtypes:1. Stable Plaque Psoriasis:This subtype is identified by well-defined, regular lesions that exhibit relatively stable features over time. The plaques are often symmetrically distributed on the body and maintain a consistent appearance. Treatment involves topical therapies, Phototherapy, and systemic medications.2. Unstable Plaque Psoriasis:Unlike stable plaque psoriasis, lesions in this subtype tend to change rapidly, both in size and appearance. The dynamic nature of the lesions can pose challenges in predicting the course of the condition over time. Regular monitoring and adjustment of treatment plans are essential to address evolving symptoms.3. Inverse Psoriasis:Inverse Psoriasis variant affects skin folds, presenting as smooth, red patches that may lack the typical scaling seen in other forms of psoriasis. Common areas of involvement include the armpits, groin, under the breasts, and different skin folds. treatment often involves gentle topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and maintaining a dry and ventilated environment.4. Guttate Psoriasis:Guttate psoriasis manifests as small, drop-shaped lesions often triggered by infections, particularly streptococcal infections. The lesions are more widespread and smaller than classic plaque psoriasis. Topical treatments, phototherapy, and systemic medications may be needed.5. Pustular Psoriasis:The presence of pus-filled blisters on the skin identifies Pustular Psoriasis. The blisters, or bumps, are surrounded by red, inflamed skin and may be localized or widespread. Management may require a multidisciplinary approach, and close monitoring is necessary.6. Erythrodermic Psoriasis:Erythrodermic psoriasis involves widespread redness and shedding of scales, often affecting the entire body surface. This subtype is rare but severe, requiring immediate medical attention due to the risk of complications. Hospitalization may be necessary for intensive care, hydration, and temperature regulation.7. Psoriatic Arthritis:Psoriatic arthritis is a form of inflammatory arthritis that affects some individuals with psoriasis. Joint pain, swelling, and stiffness are common symptoms. Psoriatic arthritis can affect any joint, including the fingers, toes, spine, and large joints. NSAIDs, DMARDs, and biologics are used to manage psoriatic arthritis.Differential Diagnosis for Chronic Plaque PsoriasisAccurate diagnosis is paramount, considering the overlap of symptoms with other dermatological conditions. Differential diagnoses include:1. Eczema (atopic dermatitis)Itchy, inflamed skin is often associated with a personal or family history of allergies.2. Seborrheic dermatitisIdentified by red, scaly patches commonly affecting the scalp and face.3. Tinea corporisA fungal infection causes circular, red, and scaly lesions. A meticulous examination, often supplemented by skin biopsies, aids in ruling out alternative diagnoses.Treatment for Chronic Plaque PsoriasisWhile a definitive cure remains elusive, many treatment options aim to manage symptoms and improve quality of life. The choice of treatment depends on the severity of the condition:1. Topical treatmentsIncluding corticosteroids, vitamin D analogs, and retinoids.2. PhototherapyUtilizing UVB or PUVA light to slow skin cell turnover.3. Systemic medicationsSuch as methotrexate, cyclosporine, and acitretin.4. BiologicsTargeted therapies like TNF-alpha inhibitors and IL-17 inhibitors.Prevention of Chronic Plaque PsoriasisProactive management involves identifying and mitigating triggers. Stress reduction strategies, regular exercise, and a balanced diet contribute not only to overall well-being but also play a role in minimizing flare-ups. Establishing a consistent skincare routine, avoiding skin injuries, and incorporating stress management techniques contribute to long-term preventive measures. Early medical intervention, lifestyle adjustments, and adherence to treatment regimens collectively form the cornerstone of preventive measures.Outcome for Chronic Plaque PsoriasisWhile some individuals may experience periods of remission, others may face persistent symptoms. Continuous medical management, complemented by a holistic perspective that addresses physical and mental health, is instrumental in disease control and complication prevention. The individualized nature of chronic plaque psoriasis outcomes underscores the importance of ongoing collaboration between individuals and their healthcare providers.When to Visit the Doctor?Timely medical attention is imperative for those experiencing persistent symptoms, as early diagnosis facilitates prompt intervention. Individuals noticing red, scaly patches, joint pain, or nail abnormalities should seek medical evaluation. Regular follow-ups with healthcare providers ensure ongoing support, allowing for adjustments in treatment plans as needed.ConclusionDeciphering the intricacies of chronic plaque psoriasis requires a holistic understanding of its causes, manifestations, and management strategies. By unraveling the multifaceted nature of this condition, individuals can engage in informed decision-making, actively participating in their healthcare journey. Collaboration with healthcare professionals, proactive preventive measures, and approach to health contribute to a resilient response to chronic plaque psoriasis. Despite the challenges posed by this persistent skin disorder, empowered individuals can lead fulfilling lives by leveraging the wealth of knowledge and resources available for managing chronic plaque psoriasis.